Subject: History of Chocolate in York
Speaker: Norman Simpson
The Wharfedale Family History Group met Thursday 1st November and the meeting opened with a short extraordinary general meeting in which members unanimously approved a change to the Airedale & Wharfedale Family History Society incorporating Wharfedale and Keighley family history groups with effect from 1st January 2019. Chairman Lynda Balmforth welcomed our speaker for the evening Norman Simpson who presented an interesting illustrated presentation on the History of Chocolate in York.
Chocolate was originally consumed as a drink made from crushed cocoa beans in South America around 2500 to 3000 years ago. Aztec Emperor Montezuma I 1398 – 1469 is said to have drunk large quantities believing it to be an aphrodisiac. European chocolate drinking first became popular amongst the elite in France and was introduced into England around 1659 when it was consumed for its apparent medicinal qualities. The cocoa drink as we know it today was not made until 1828 when most of the cocoa butter had been extracted and sugar added so that it was more palatable.
The first dark chocolate bar was made by Frys in 1847 and Lindt invented milk chocolate in 1879. The first chocolate manufacturer in York was Mary Tuke in 1732 and Henry Rowntree purchased the Tuke business in 1862. He was joined by his brother Joseph who eventually took over the business. The Rowntrees were a Quaker family as were all the major English chocolate manufacturers including Cadbury, Fry and Terry. Joseph Rowntree was a noted philanthropist who treated his workers well. He introduced sick pay and pension schemes but also vetted new employees in their own homes and punctuality was essential. Joseph grew the Rowntree business which employed 1600 staff in York in 1899. The Rowntree factory moved to its familiar Haxby Road site in 1904. Rowntree confectionary produced popular pastilles and gums and their first chocolate did not compete well with market leaders Cadbury and Fry. However the company had its first major breakthrough in chocolate with Black Magic in 1933 followed by the Kit Kat Chocolate Crisp in 1935.
The other major chocolate manufacturer in York was Terrys (originally Terry and Berry founded 1823). Terrys first produced chocolate in 1867 and their famous chocolate orange first appeared in 1932. Rowntrees were taken over by Nestle in 1988 and Terrys by Kraft Foods in 1993 prompting an end to chocolate production in York which at its height employed some 1800 staff in the city.
A lady from the audience showed us a family heirloom Rowntrees WW1 chocolate tin. In December 1914 the City of York sent Rowntree tins of chocolate to all York men serving in WW1. Lynda Balmforth gave a vote of thanks.
The group’s next meeting will take place 7.30 pm Thursday 6th December at the Salem Church Hall, Burley when we shall be holding our annual general knowledge Christmas Prize Quiz. Members and visitors all welcome, refreshments will be served.
Subject: Otley to Nidderdale in Pictures
Speaker: David Alred
The Wharfedale Family History Group met Thursday 4th October and apologies to those who were expecting speaker Norman Simpson who will be joining us next month. In the event our actual programmed speaker Lynda Telford was unfortunately unable to join us so David Alred came to our aid at very short notice with a fascinating slide show of vintage pictures featuring Otley, Nidderdale and the Washburn valley. David collected his pictures from various sources including many kind donations from farming families around the district.
David’s pictures and commentary included early C20th Otley street scenes, street parties and skating on a frozen River Wharfe. There were many local country-side scenes featuring early farming methods of hay-making, sheep shearing and ploughing as well as stone quarrying around Nidderdale and local reservoir construction. David’s excellent collection also included local farming families, road gangers and other interesting local characters including Otley’s Neddy Emmott 1852 – 1913 and Betty Simpson born 1844 of Wonderful House, Norwood. Chairman Linda Balmforth gave a warm vote of thanks at the close. David’s book Nidderdale Yesterday: A Pictorial Record of Life in a Yorkshire Dale ISBN-10: 1858251591 ISBN-13: 978-1858251592 may be of interest.
The group’s next meeting will take place 7.30 pm Thursday 1st November at the Salem Church Hall, Burley when Norman Simpson will present his talk The History of Chocolate in York. Refreshments will be provided, everyone welcome.
Subject: No Place like Home
Speaker: Peter Higginbotham
The Wharfedale Family History Group met at the Salem Church Hall on Thursday 7th June. Chairman Lynda Balmforth opened the meeting and welcomed guest speaker Peter Higginbotham whose illustrated presentation was ‘No Place like Home’: the institutions that housed Britain’s children. Children’s homes over the years have been in many different guises. One of the earliest was founded by Thomas Coram in 1739. His Foundling Hospital was London’s first home for babies whose mothers were unable to care for them. This large establishment was supported by a number of wealthy individuals and artists including William Hogarth, Handel and Charles Dickens. The Coram Charity continues to this day providing support for vulnerable children and their families. Many early orphan asylums had strict admission requirements determined by legitimacy, health, wealth and race. Entry was often determined by election or payment of a lump sum.
One of the most well-known figures in child care was Dr Thomas Barnado 1845-1905 who established Barnado’s Homes for children from 1866 following his encounters with many destitute children in London’s East End. Many homes were established including cottage home developments in the style of a village. One early Barnado’s home was the Home for Little Incurables in Bradford. The Barnado’s Charity is still well-known today continuing to provide help for vulnerable children. Perhaps less well-known is Thomas Bowman Stephenson 1839-1912 a Methodist minister who founded what were to become National Children’s Homes in 1869. Hilton Grange in Bramhope was Yorkshire’s first National Children’s Home opened in 1907. Another influential figure was Edward Rudolph 1852-1933 founder of The Waifs and Strays Society (now The Children’s Society) which ran a number of smaller homes around the country including St Chad’s Home for Delicate Girls in Headingley, established 1889. Here the girls ran a very successful cottage industry producing and selling a variety of high quality knitted stockings.
Aside from these larger organisations there were many other smaller independent institutions which cared for children such as Ilkley Orphanage for Girls (now Margaret’s Court) and Joseph Nutter’s Orphanage for Boys in Bradford. There were also a number of occupational homes such as the Sailors’ Orphan Institute of Hull established 1837 and St George’s Northern Police Orphanage in Harrogate established 1897. Various religious groups ran their own homes including the renowned Magdalene homes for ‘fallen’ women and their babies. Certified schools were established from 1862 to remove children from the influences of the work house. Other types of institution include borstals, emigration homes, industrial schools and many more.
Local authorities took over control of children’s care in 1930 and their role was extended by the Children’s Act 1948. During the course of the twentieth century there was a gradual decline in residential care for children with a growing emphasis on vulnerable children staying with or being restored to their families. Today’s remaining children’s homes mainly cater for children with special needs. Local authority children’s homes were often located in large houses such as Inglewood in Otley, Wheatley Lawns in Ben Rhydding and Hill Top House in Ilkley.
Family historians can approach organisations that still exist such as Barnado’s for information and records and photographs may be available for a fee. Many former children’s homes have become schools and may have retained historic records. County archives may also hold records for local institutions. Peter’s websites childrenshomes.org.uk and workhouses.org.uk provide lots of useful information and details of his popular publications. Finally Lynda proposed a warm vote of thanks following questions from the floor. The group’s next meeting will be a research evening 7.30 pm Thursday 5th July. Access to all the main genealogical internet sites will be available, members and visitors all welcome, refreshments provided. If the latest series of Who do you think you are? has inspired you do come along and we’ll help get you started with your research or perhaps find a way of breaking down your brick walls.
Subject: Letters from a Faraway Laddie – from the Nidd to the Nile’
Speaker: Sue McGeever
The Wharfedale Family History Group met at the Salem Church Hall on Thursday 3rd May. Chairman Lynda Balmforth opened the meeting and welcomed guest speaker for the evening Sue McGeever who presented her illustrated talk ‘Letters from a Faraway Laddie – from the Nidd to the Nile’.
The subject of Sue’s talk concerned her grandfather Harry Gill born Summerbridge 1858. Harry came from a family of rope and twine makers and was a lay preacher. In early 1899 he embarked upon an educational cruise aboard the steam yacht Argonaut, organised by Henry Lunn, for the princely sum of £21. Whilst he was away he wrote a series of letters to his fiancée Maggie Morton who lived with her family on the Chatsworth Estate in Derbyshire. These letters are still in the possession of the family together with a collection of rare holiday snaps most probably taken by Harry on an early folding pocket Kodak camera. Harry addressed his letters to his Lassie and signed them from a Faraway Laddie and they provide a wonderful description of his travels, taking in many locations associated with the Bible.
After travelling to Marseilles he boarded the ship to Naples then on to Katakola in Greece from where the party visited Olympia then went overland by train to Piraeus, calling at Mycenae and Corinth along the way. The party spent time in Athens before reboarding the ship which took them to the island of Patmos and then to Jaffa (Tel Aviv). They stayed in Jerusalem visiting many Holy sites including the River Jordan where Harry experienced a full immersion baptism. He also brought home a phial of river water in anticipation of his own future children’s baptisms. The group then travelled to Alexandria, staying in Cairo and enjoying the Pyramids and the Nile. Harry was delighted by Egypt as he was by most of the places he visited with the exception of Jerusalem which he thought rather spoilt.
Departing Egypt for Malta Harry was by this time rather unwell which he blamed on sea-sickness but he was also missing home. He purchased some beautiful Maltese lace which he brought home for Maggie, who he married later that year. The couple settled in Summerbridge and had 6 children together. Harry’s letters express his delight in his journey including cold water sea baths and cricket on board ship but towards the end of his one month trip he was missing simple home cooked food.
Lynda Balmforth gave a vote of thanks and following refreshments a short AGM was held during which the existing team of committee members were re-elected for the coming year. The Group’s next meeting will take place 7.30 pm on Thursday 7 June at the Salem Church Hall, Main Street, Burley when well known historian Peter Higginbotham will present his talk, No Place like Home. Members and non-members all welcome, refreshments provided.
Subject: History of Education in 19th and early 20thCenturies
Speaker: Edgar Holroyd-Doveton
The Wharfedale Family History Group met at the Salem Church Hall on Thursday 5th April. Chairman Lynda Balmforth opened the meeting and welcomed guest speaker Edgar Holroyd-Doveton whose presentation on the History of Education in 19th and early 20thCenturies included some excellent historic film sequences.
He explained how an eclectic mix of educational establishments existed prior to the formalisation of State Education following the Education Act of 1870 (which incidentally was known as the Forster Act after its sponsor MP William Forster 1818 – 1886 owner of Greenholme Mills and resident of Burley). Early 19th century schools were either public, grammar or charity and wealthy families educated their children at home with a tutor or governess. By mid-19th century ‘public’ schools had become elite private schools for the wealthy and grammar schools catered for the children of wealthy middle class families. There were also smaller private schools (usually run by charities), Dame schools, British & National schools, Sunday schools and Ragged Schools. Prior to 1870 however, many working class children did not attend school at all because they were working.
Public schools were originally located in rural areas and were actually ‘public’ before they developed into expensive fee paying schools for the wealthy. Such schools mainly taught literacy to boys who boarded there. Preparatory schools also developed to cater for younger wealthy boys before they went to public school. Grammar schools were usually located in towns and their original purpose was to teach Latin to the sons of middle class tradesmen and professionals. The curriculum gradually broadened to include Ancient Greek, English language and geography. These schools were fee paying like the public schools but after 1870 a number of free scholarship places were made available. Private schools were often established where there was no available grammar school and these were usually run as a business in a master’s large house. Fees for such schools restricted their availability to the wealthy.
Ragged schools (a movement begun by John Pounds 1766-1839) were established in some places to provide free education (mainly reading) to poor, destitute and often homeless children. There were 250 of these in London prior to the 1870 Act. Sunday schools were often the only available form of schooling in many places where children were taught reading and writing. Their emphasis upon religious instruction only really began after 1870. National Schools were established and run by the Church of England whilst British schools were set up in opposition by non-conformists. Both these types of school were absorbed into the State education system after 1870 and Board schools (run by an elected board) came into being to provide more school places.
Despite the 1870 Act many children, particularly in the industrial areas of West Yorkshire and Lancashire continued to work in the factories and mills, only attending school as ‘Half Timers’ until as recently as 1921. Throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries educational reform was resisted not only by industry owners but also by parents who needed their children’s wages in order to survive. Where available, school log books and admission registers can provide useful information for family historians.
President Stanley Merridew gave a vote of thanks following questions and comments from the audience. The Group’s next meeting will take place 7.30 pm on Thursday 3rd May at the Salem Church Hall, Main Street, Burley when Sue McGeever will present her talk, Letters from a Faraway Laddie, from the Nidd to the Nile. Members and non-members all welcome, refreshments provided.